•  +919809874355

  •  info@ymcaovungal.com

Contact Us

Search Now

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

ABOUT BLOOD


WHAT IS BLOOD? WHAT IS IT COMPOSED OF?

Blood is the red coloured fluid flowing continuously in our body’s circulatory system. It contains mainly a fluid called plasma in which are suspended cellular elements. Three types of cells: Red Blood Cells or RBC’s, White Blood Cells or WBC’s and tiny platelets form the cellular element


HOW MUCH BLOOD DOES A PERSON HAVE?

The total amount of blood in the human body can vary with several factors, like age, sex, health condition, body type, etc. However, for an average adult, the volume of blood in his/her body is 7-8% of the body weight (The amount of blood would vary between 5 to 6 litres for an average adult)



HOW IS BLOOD FORMED?

Blood consists of RBCs, WBCs, platelets suspended in plasma. In early embryonic life blood cells are formed in liver and spleen. But by the fifth month the Haemopoisis (i.e., formation of blood) occurs in bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. At birth the entire bone marrow is red and active. Gradually as the child grows, the marrow remains red only in the flat bones and vertebrae. The RBC, grannulocytes of WBC and platelets are produced mainly by bone marrow. The lymphocytes, monocytes, plasma cells are formed in the lymphoid and Reticulo Endothelial tissues. The orderly proliferation of the cells in the bone marrow and their release into circulation is carefully regulated according to the needs of body. Every day, new blood cells are being produced in the bone marrow and every day old cells are dying and being removed from the body. Red blood cells have a life of 120 days and when it becomes old and senile it is thrown out. White cells live for a few days and platelets for a few hours. Thus, daily new cells are added to the circulation and old are removed from it.



WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF BLOOD?

The functions of the 4 components of blood are: a) Plasma: acts as a vehicle to carry many substances like glucose, fats and proteins, enzymes and hormones, etc., in addition to the blood cells. b) Red Cells: carry oxygen from lungs to various body tissues and take back carbon dioxide from the cells and tissues to be thrown out of body in the form of exhaled air. c) White cells: mainly act as body scavengers and guards. They help in the immune system of the body and act as defence forces of the body, killing the bacteria or any other organisms entering the body. d) Platelets: help in the clotting and coagulation of blood. We have experienced in our life that whenever we get injured the bleeding stops after a few minutes. This is brought about by a mechanism called clotting of blood in which platelets plays a very vital role.



WHAT IS HAEMOGLOBIN?

Haemoglobin is a substance present in the red cells. It is helpful in carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide. On an average, in a healthy male it should be between 14-16 gm % and in a female it should be about 12-14 gm %. This is also being daily synthesized and the new is replacing the old stock.



WHAT ARE BLOOD GROUPS? WHAT IS RH FACTOR?

Every individual has two types of blood groups. The first is called the ABO grouping and the second type is called Rh grouping. In the ABO group there are four categories namely A Group, B Group, O Group and AB Group. In the Rh Group either the individual is Rh-positive, or Rh-negative. Rh is a factor called as Rhesus factor that has come to us from Rhesus monkeys. It refers to a protein on the red blood cells (Protein present: Rh-positive; Protein absent: Rh-negative). Thus, each and every human being will fall in one of the following groups. A positive or A negative B positive or B negative O positive or O negative AB positive or AB negative There are also some sub groups and other classifications which have not been discussed here.



HOW COMMON IS A BLOOD GROUP?


Frequency of Blood Groups
O+ 1 person in 3 O- 1 person in 15
A+ 1 person in 3 A- 1 person in 16
B+ 1 person in 12 B- 1 person in 67
AB+ 1 person in 29 AB- 1 person in 167


About Blood donation


WHAT IS A UNIT OF BLOOD?

Blood is collected in plastic bags which contain a fluid which prevents blood from getting coagulated. Blood banks usually draw 450ml of blood when the blood donation is in the blood bank and 350ml when the blood donation is in a blood donation camp (outside the hospital). This blood, along with the anti coagulant present in the bottle or bag, is known as one unit of blood.



IN WHICH SITUATIONS IS BLOOD TRANSFUSION REQUIRED?

There are many situations in which patients need blood to stay alive: A patient needs blood after a major accident in which there is loss of blood. No major surgery is performed without blood as there is bound to be blood loss. (On an average, for every open heart surgery about 6 units of blood is required.) In miscarriage or childbirth, the patient may need a lot of blood to be transfused to saving her life and also the child’s. For patients with blood diseases like severe Anaemia (especially Aplastic Anaemias), Leucaemias (blood cancer), Hemophilia (bleeding disorder), Thalassemia etc. repeated blood transfusions are the only solution. In many other situations like poisoning, drug reactions, shock, burns, blood transfusion is the only way to save precious human life.



IS THE COLLECTED BLOOD TESTED BEFORE TRANSFUSION?

Yes. ALL the blood collected in the blood bank is tested for the following diseases: Hepatitis B & C Malarial parasite HIV I & II (AIDS) Venereal disease (Syphilis) Blood Group Before issuing blood, compatibility tests (cross matching) is also done. The results of these tests are kept highly confidential and not shared with anyone. Only in case of major ailments found in the donated blood, is the donor informed about it.



CAN WE SEPARATE BLOOD INTO ITS COMPONENTS?

Yes! Now with technical advancements, we can make components of blood and store them. For example, plasma can be separated from whole blood and stored up to one year in frozen state at -80 deg C temperature or below. This is called Fresh Frozen Plasma. Similarly there are other components like Platelet Rich Plasma; Platelet Concentrate (can be stored as a life saving measure up to 5 days now at 22-24 degrees C in a platelet incubator and agitator); Cryoprecipitate (which is very useful in treating bleeding disorders due to the deficiency of factor VIII and IX); Factor VIII and IX; Albumin, Globulin and many others. Now days, many blood banks convert the blood in its components and store it. This is because many patients do not require whole blood. For example, a patient whose haemoglobin is low (anaemic), may just require Packed Cells i.e. only red cells; a patient with burns may need more of plasma than cells; a patient with hemophilia may require only Factor VIII. With the advent of cell-separators, we can also directly draw just a particular component from the donor.



HOW LONG CAN BLOOD BE STORED?

If the blood has not been segregated in its components, it can be stored for up to 35 days, when kept in CPDA anti coagulant solution and refrigerated at 2-4 deg C. For segregated components, the storage time varies as mentioned below:

Platelet Concentrate - 5 days
Platelet Apherises – 5 days
Platelet Rich Plasma - 5 days
Packed Cells – 35 days
Fresh Frozen Plasma - 1 year
Cryo Anti Hemophilic Factor – 1 year
Cryo Poor Plasma – 5 years



CAN BLOOD OF ANIMALS BE TRANSFUSED TO HUMAN BEINGS?

There has been a lot of research in this field, but it has not led to any success till now. Only the blood of a human being can be transfused to another human being.



CAN A PERSON WITH 'A' GROUP DONATE BLOOD TO A PERSON WITH 'B' GROUP?

No, it cannot be done. This is due to the reason that the blood of A Group people contains anti-B antibodies. In B group people there are anti-A antibodies. If we give A group blood to a B group patient, it can lead to serious consequences. AB+ is the universal recipient because AB Group contains both anti-A, anti-B antibodies. O- is the universal donor because O Group contains neither anti-A and anti-B antibodies.



WHY ARE RH-NEGATIVE AND RH-POSITIVE INCOMPATIBLE?

'Rh-negative' and 'Rh-positive' refer to whether your blood has Rh factor. Rh factor is a protein on red blood cells. If you have Rh factor, you're Rh-positive. If you don't have it, you're Rh-negative. If you are Rh-negative and you are injected Rh-positive blood, your body will create antibodies for the Rh-positive factor. This can lead to destruction of red blood cells in your body faster than the speed with which they are replaced.



DO BLOOD BANKS USE 'O-' AS A UNIVERSAL DONOR TO TRANSFUSE BLOOD TO PEOPLE WITH OTHER BLOOD GROUPS?

For all practical and routine purposes, it is ideal and preferable to transfuse to the patient the same group of blood which he belongs to. It is only under very dire emergencies that the blood banks take O group as universal donor and AB groups as universal recipient. Also, under no circumstances O group can get any other blood except O. Similarly A group patient cannot be given B group blood and vice versa.



WHAT HAPPENS TO PATIENTS WHO ARE GIVEN INCOMPATIBLE BLOOD (MISMATCHED BLOOD)?

The following symptoms may occur after only a few ‘ml’ of blood have been given: Patient complains of shivering, restlessness, nausea and vomiting. There is precardial and lumbar pain. Cold, clammy skin with cyanosis. Pulse rate increases, respiratory rate increases. Temperature increases to 38 to 40 deg C. [101 to 105 F]. Blood pressure falls and patient passes into a state of shock. Haemoglobinaemia, haemoglobinurea (urine turns red); oliguria (urine becomes scanty or the urinary output is reduced) and anuria (total output of urine becomes 200 ml. a day) Jaundice appears after a few hours and in some cases anuria persists and uremia develops. This may lead to death.


About Blood donation


WHAT IS A UNIT OF BLOOD?

Blood is collected in plastic bags which contain a fluid which prevents blood from getting coagulated. Blood banks usually draw 450ml of blood when the blood donation is in the blood bank and 350ml when the blood donation is in a blood donation camp (outside the hospital). This blood, along with the anti coagulant present in the bottle or bag, is known as one unit of blood.



IN WHICH SITUATIONS IS BLOOD TRANSFUSION REQUIRED?

There are many situations in which patients need blood to stay alive: A patient needs blood after a major accident in which there is loss of blood. No major surgery is performed without blood as there is bound to be blood loss. (On an average, for every open heart surgery about 6 units of blood is required.) In miscarriage or childbirth, the patient may need a lot of blood to be transfused to saving her life and also the child’s. For patients with blood diseases like severe Anaemia (especially Aplastic Anaemias), Leucaemias (blood cancer), Hemophilia (bleeding disorder), Thalassemia etc. repeated blood transfusions are the only solution. In many other situations like poisoning, drug reactions, shock, burns, blood transfusion is the only way to save precious human life.



IS THE COLLECTED BLOOD TESTED BEFORE TRANSFUSION?

Yes. ALL the blood collected in the blood bank is tested for the following diseases: Hepatitis B & C Malarial parasite HIV I & II (AIDS) Venereal disease (Syphilis) Blood Group Before issuing blood, compatibility tests (cross matching) is also done. The results of these tests are kept highly confidential and not shared with anyone. Only in case of major ailments found in the donated blood, is the donor informed about it.



CAN WE SEPARATE BLOOD INTO ITS COMPONENTS?

Yes! Now with technical advancements, we can make components of blood and store them. For example, plasma can be separated from whole blood and stored up to one year in frozen state at -80 deg C temperature or below. This is called Fresh Frozen Plasma. Similarly there are other components like Platelet Rich Plasma; Platelet Concentrate (can be stored as a life saving measure up to 5 days now at 22-24 degrees C in a platelet incubator and agitator); Cryoprecipitate (which is very useful in treating bleeding disorders due to the deficiency of factor VIII and IX); Factor VIII and IX; Albumin, Globulin and many others. Now days, many blood banks convert the blood in its components and store it. This is because many patients do not require whole blood. For example, a patient whose haemoglobin is low (anaemic), may just require Packed Cells i.e. only red cells; a patient with burns may need more of plasma than cells; a patient with hemophilia may require only Factor VIII. With the advent of cell-separators, we can also directly draw just a particular component from the donor.



HOW LONG CAN BLOOD BE STORED?

If the blood has not been segregated in its components, it can be stored for up to 35 days, when kept in CPDA anti coagulant solution and refrigerated at 2-4 deg C. For segregated components, the storage time varies as mentioned below:

Platelet Concentrate - 5 days
Platelet Apherises – 5 days
Platelet Rich Plasma - 5 days
Packed Cells – 35 days
Fresh Frozen Plasma - 1 year
Cryo Anti Hemophilic Factor – 1 year
Cryo Poor Plasma – 5 years



CAN BLOOD OF ANIMALS BE TRANSFUSED TO HUMAN BEINGS?

There has been a lot of research in this field, but it has not led to any success till now. Only the blood of a human being can be transfused to another human being.



CAN A PERSON WITH 'A' GROUP DONATE BLOOD TO A PERSON WITH 'B' GROUP?

No, it cannot be done. This is due to the reason that the blood of A Group people contains anti-B antibodies. In B group people there are anti-A antibodies. If we give A group blood to a B group patient, it can lead to serious consequences. AB+ is the universal recipient because AB Group contains both anti-A, anti-B antibodies. O- is the universal donor because O Group contains neither anti-A and anti-B antibodies.



WHY ARE RH-NEGATIVE AND RH-POSITIVE INCOMPATIBLE?

'Rh-negative' and 'Rh-positive' refer to whether your blood has Rh factor. Rh factor is a protein on red blood cells. If you have Rh factor, you're Rh-positive. If you don't have it, you're Rh-negative. If you are Rh-negative and you are injected Rh-positive blood, your body will create antibodies for the Rh-positive factor. This can lead to destruction of red blood cells in your body faster than the speed with which they are replaced.



DO BLOOD BANKS USE 'O-' AS A UNIVERSAL DONOR TO TRANSFUSE BLOOD TO PEOPLE WITH OTHER BLOOD GROUPS?

For all practical and routine purposes, it is ideal and preferable to transfuse to the patient the same group of blood which he belongs to. It is only under very dire emergencies that the blood banks take O group as universal donor and AB groups as universal recipient. Also, under no circumstances O group can get any other blood except O. Similarly A group patient cannot be given B group blood and vice versa.



WHAT HAPPENS TO PATIENTS WHO ARE GIVEN INCOMPATIBLE BLOOD (MISMATCHED BLOOD)?

The following symptoms may occur after only a few ‘ml’ of blood have been given: Patient complains of shivering, restlessness, nausea and vomiting. There is precardial and lumbar pain. Cold, clammy skin with cyanosis. Pulse rate increases, respiratory rate increases. Temperature increases to 38 to 40 deg C. [101 to 105 F]. Blood pressure falls and patient passes into a state of shock. Haemoglobinaemia, haemoglobinurea (urine turns red); oliguria (urine becomes scanty or the urinary output is reduced) and anuria (total output of urine becomes 200 ml. a day) Jaundice appears after a few hours and in some cases anuria persists and uremia develops. This may lead to death.